The Evidence Portal

Pride in Parenting

About the program

The Pride in Parenting program is a community-based intervention targeting African American mothers who have not accessed adequate prenatal care. The main objectives are to improve mothers’ use of maternal and child health and social services resources, identify and maintain existing community systems, develop effective coping strategies, establish family routines and personal goals, and improve responsiveness to the child’s needs.

The curriculum is designed to improve knowledge, influence attitudes and promote life skills that would assist low-income mothers in offering a more optimal health and developmental environment for their infants. The program uses an ecological intervention model focused on parenting, infant health, individual coping skills, and recruitment and maintenance of social support systems. Topics for home visits include newborn care, women’s health needs, healthy relationships, family planning, immunisations, health visits, safety in the home, budgeting, developing social support, involvement of fathers, managing child behaviour, drug use and smoking.

Who does it work for?

The program is targeted at African American mothers who have not accessed adequate prenatal care.

An RCT conducted in the USA had a final sample of 286 mothers predominantly at risk, unmarried, 98.6% African American, living in the inner-city, with 10.8% educated above high school level, and 60.1% below the poverty level (Katz et al. 2011).

This review did not identify any evidence that the program has been evaluated in Australia or with First Nations communities.

What outcomes does it contribute to?

Positive outcomes:

Parenting behaviours: Participants receiving a high level of the intervention showed a statistically significant reduction in parentification behaviour (the mother’s tendency to reverse parent-child roles in expecting her child to look after her) (Katz et al. 2011).

No effect:


Negative outcomes:


Is the program effective?

Overall, the program had a positive effect on client outcomes.

How strong is the evidence?

Promising research evidence:

  • At least one high-quality RCT/QED study reports statistically significant positive effects for at least one outcome, AND
  • Fewer RCT/QED studies of similar size and quality show no observed effects than show statistically significant positive effects, AND
  • No RCT/QED studies show statistically significant adverse effects.

How is it implemented?

The program combines home visiting and group-based interventions in the form of playgroups. Participants receive visits from the home visitor for one year. Visits occur weekly from birth to 4 months, and biweekly from 5 to 12 months. In addition, mothers are offered biweekly parent-infant playgroups and parent discussion groups beginning at 5 months and continuing until the infant is 12 months old. The group session format is a 45-minute parent/infant playgroup focused on developmental issues, followed by a 45-minute parent group discussion.

How much does it cost?

Information not available

What else should I consider?

The program uses paraprofessional home visitors who participate in a 45-day intensive training on issues to be covered and the specific content for each visit.

Where does the evidence come from?

One RCT with final sample of 286 mothers in the USA. Outcomes were measured for 146 women in the intervention group and 140 in the control group (Katz et al. 2011).

Further resources

Katz, K., et al. (2011). “Effectiveness of a Combined Home Visiting and Group Intervention for Low Income African American Mothers: The Pride in Parenting Program.” Maternal and Child Health Journal 15(S1): 75-84.

Last updated:

16 Feb 2023

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